Negotiation and Conflict Management Research
© The International Association for Conflict Management (IACM) and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Michael A. Gross, Editor-in-Chief
Colorado State University
NCMR Volume 10, Issue 1
Do I Trust You? Depends on What You Feel: Interpersonal Effects of Emotions on Initial Trust at Zero-Acquaintance
Liuba Y. Belkin and Naomi B. Rothman
Department of Management, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA, U.S.A.
This article explores the interpersonal effects of emotions on stereotype formation and initial trust in zero-acquaintance interactions. In three experiments, we demonstrate that perceptions of partner sociability, morality, and competence are significantly influenced by emotional expressions and are important predictors of trust. Specifically, we show that in zero-acquaintance interactions, displays of happiness increase, but displays of anger decrease stereotypes of sociability, morality, and competence. Happiness expressions are also conducive to trust, whereas expressions of anger are detrimental to trust. We further demonstrate that expressions of ambivalence do not affect perceptions of sociability, but decrease perceptions of morality and competence. Overall, expressions of ambivalence have a negative effect on partner trust. Perceptions of morality consistently explain the effect of expressed happiness, anger, and ambivalence on initial trust across the three experiments and different bargaining contexts. Implications for research on emotions and trust in negotiations are discussed.
Buffering Against the Detrimental Effects of Demographic Faultlines: The Curious Case of Intragroup Conflict in Small Work Groups
Wendi L. Adair1, Lindie H. Liang2, and Ivona Hideg3
1 – Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada
2 – School of Human Resources Management, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada
3 – School of Business & Economics, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON, Canada
Group faultline literature suggests that subgroups impede group functioning. We propose that team conflict may buffer the detrimental effects of faultlines on group performance. We draw on social categorization and group process theories suggesting that the negative effects of fault-lines are due to increased competition and decreased communication across subgroups and can be diminished with cross-subgroup information exchange and elaboration. We propose that intragroup conflict in small groups will decrease negative effects of demographic faultlines because detecting conflict and engaging in conflict management require cross-subgroup communication and information elaboration. In Study 1, using student groups we found that relationship, task, and process conflict buffered the negative effect of demographic faultline strength on group performance. In Study 2, we manipulated conflict and group faultlines (ethnic faultlines vs. no faultlines) and found that group conflict buffered the negative effect of faultlines on group performance. Theoretical contributions and practical implications are discussed.
When Do People Initiate a Negotiation? The Role of Discrepancy, Satisfaction, and Ability Beliefs
Julia A. M. Reif and Felix C. Brodbeck
Economic and Organisational Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Munich, Germany
Some elements of the ideas described in this article were presented at the 23rd Annual Conference of the International Association for Conflict Management, Boston, USA. The research further draws on a dissertation completed by Julia A. M. Reif at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen. We thank Barbara Mehner for her assistance in data collection for Study 1.
Negotiation research increasingly pays attention to the beginning of negotiations. Building on a theory of the initiation of negotiation we investigated when and why people consider initiating negotiations. Results from one field study and two scenario experiments show that a negative discrepancy between an actual state and a desired state increased the intention to initiate a negotiation and promoted real initiation behavior. This effect was mediated by the subjective perception of this discrepancy and feelings of dissatisfaction. Expectancy considerations in the form of ability to initiate negotiations and implicit beliefs about negotiation ability moderated this serial mediation effect: high initiation ability and incremental negotiation beliefs facilitated the decision to negotiate whereas low initiation ability and entity negotiation beliefs inhibited negotiation initiations. In the present work, we offer a first empirical test of the theory of initiation of negotiation.
NCMR Journal Home Page: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1750-4716